In This Issue: ATLAS Neuroengineering Probes, Ready To Ship: QuickClip™ Connection and Mux Headstages, and TechSpot: Sub-sampling and Aliasing.

Released and Ready to Ship

Neuralynx, Inc. is the Exclusive North American Distributor of Standard Passive High-Density, Multi-Site Silicon Neural Probes by

Providing Tools to Record and Stimulate Neural Activity
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QuickClipTM Connection
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Our QuickClip TM Connection magnetically aligns the headstage and initiates the connection to the EIB.  You complete the connection with a simple snap.

In only three steps, you are guaranteed a correctly aligned, secure, and reliable
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Simply Revolutionary!

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Digital Lynx SX-M Multiplexing Headstages
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Tech Spot:  Sub-sampling and Aliasing
In all current Neuralynx acquisition systems, each channel is sampled at the same rate.  Sub-sampling is used to effectively reduce the sampling rate, resulting in a smaller data set.  This is useful when higher frequencies are not needed.  When sub-sampling, precautions must be taken to ensure that aliasing does not occur.  Aliasing introduces distortion and "new frequencies" in the recordings.  Following the Nyquist criteria will prevent aliasing from occurring.  The Nyquist criteria states that your effective sampling rate (Fs) must be at least twice as high as the highest desired frequency in the signal.  For example, if your maximum frequency of interest is 500 Hz (Fmax), your effective sampling rate must be no less Fs = 1000 Hz.  Failure to do so will cause distortion and remap the frequencies greater than Fs/2.  

Neuralynx recommends sampling at a rate that is 5 to 8 times greater than the highest desired frequency.  
Nyquist sampling rates are based on having a "perfect brick wall" high cut filter, which is difficult to implement.  And having only 2 sample points per sinewave (Nyquist criteria of 2*Fmax) results in a confusing visual representation of the waveform.  The sinewave can be more accurately represented by increasing the number of sample points well beyond the Nyquist criteria.

If you sub-sample your signal, apply an anti-aliasing high cut filter slightly higher than your highest desired frequency (Fmax) to remove signals above your desired frequency (Fmax).
To sub-sample a channel(s):  In the Acquisition Entities and Display Properties window, (1) change the "Sub Sampling Interleave" (SSI) value equal to the system sampling rate divided by the desired channel rate.  Each acquisition entity may have a unique sub-sample interleave.  (2) Set the high cut frequency to a value greater than the desired bandwidth of your signal.  (3) Check the values of the CSC's 'Sample Frequency' (displayed in the Properties window) to ensure that the rate is 5 to 8 times greater than the high cut filter setting.

In the following example, our system sampling rate is 30,000 Hz and we have an input signal of F = 500 Hz signal.  The three CSC channels have the following properties:
CSC1:  SSI = 1;  Fs = 30,000 Hz;  high-cut frequency = 6000 Hz
CSC2:  SSI = 2;  Fs = 15,000 Hz;  high-cut frequency = 6000 Hz
CSC3:  SSI = 50;  Fs = 600 Hz;  high-cut frequency = 550 Hz

Notice on CSC3 the aliased "error signal" at 100 Hz.  This is a pure error signal!  The amplitude of the signal is still the same as the original input signal.
From the FFT plots shown below, no aliasing occurs with the 500 Hz signal when high sampling rates well above the Nyquist criteria are employed, as clearly seen in CSC1 and CSC2 where the sampling rates are 30 kHz and 15 kHz, respectively.  Conversely, CSC3 has the same 500 Hz input signal but aliased to 100 Hz due to a sampling rate of only Fs = 600 Hz.  The sampling rate of Fs = 600 Hz is below the Nyquist sampling criteria of
2*Fmax = 1000 Hz.
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